Methane gas hydrates of the Black Sea – environmental problem or energy source?
Keywords:gas hydrate, metastable state, methane, kinetics and thermodynamics of processes, melting, heat exchange, thermal conductivity, phase equilibria, innovation.
Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to substantiate the technological solution of equilibrium conditions in the system “methane – water phase – hydrate – R-2M”; to reveal existing ecological problems of methane gas hydrate extraction from the Black Sea bottom; to determine whether gas hydrate deposits of Black Sea methane are an ecological problem or should be considered as an energy source, to explain the necessity of introduction of the effect of forced self-preservation of methane gas hydrates into development of gas hydrates from the sea bottom.
Results. This article analyses current research on gas hydrates specifically in the Black Sea. It shows that the necessary conditions exist for the accumulation of gas hydrates in certain areas of the deep Black Sea (one of the most favourable regions among modern sea basins). This article discusses some ideas for the development of experimental studies of the metastable state of methane gas hydrates at negative temperatures: stability and mechanisms of decomposition. Despite the great variety of technological solutions and schemes of gas hydrates application proposed by the leading researchers in the world, they have been tested practically on a small number of laboratory and model installations, mainly for water desalination and concentration of water solutions, separation of two-component gas mixtures. In fact, there is no data to calculate the processes of formation and melting of ice-gas hydrate methane. The effect of self-preservation of methane gas hydrates deserves special attention.
Scientific novelty. An attempt was made to substantiate the issue of whether gas hydrate deposits of methane in the Black Sea are an environmental problem or should they be considered as an additional source of energy and even as a “fuel of the future”. The authors for the first time introduced the concept of “forced preservation (activation) effect of methane gas hydrates”, which makes it possible to stabilize methane hydrate decomposition when the system is transferred from the area of hydrate stability to the area of thermodynamic parameters, thus significantly reducing the environmental problems of the Black Sea.
Practical value. This article offers a technological solution for stabilization of equilibrium conditions by hydrophobic material “Ramsinks-2M” in the system “methane-water phase-hydrate-R-2M” to regulate the self-preservation effect of methane gas hydrates
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